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2012年河南学位英语考试阅读理解模拟试题(一)

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In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with  civilization’s every step in search of reality.Science can not really  explain electricity,magnetism,and gravition;their effects can be  measured and predicted,but of their nature no more is known to the  modern scientist than to Thales who first looked into the nature of the  electrification of physicists reject the notion that man can ever  discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity,  Bertrand Russell says,is not a thing,like St.Paul’s Cathedral;it is a  way in which things behave.When we have told how things behave when thry  are electrified,and under what circumstances they are electrified,we  have told all there is to tell.Until recently scientists would have  disapproved of such an idea.Aristotle,for example,whose natural science  dominated Western thought for two thousand years,believed that man could  arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident  principle.He felt,for example,that it is a self-evident principle that  everything in the universe has its proper place,hence one can deduce  that objects fall to the groud because that’s where they belong,and  smoke goes up because that’s where it belongs.The goal of Aristotelian  science was to explain why things happen.Modern science was born when  Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated  the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of  scientific investigation.
  The aim of controlled scientific experiments is _____.[ANSWER]
  A)to explain why things happen
  B)to expalin how things happen
  C)to describe self-evident principles
  D)to support Aristelian science
  What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thoudsand years?[ANSWER]
  A)The speculations of Thales.
  B)The forces of electricity,magnetism and gravity.
  C)Aristotle’s natural science.
  D)Galileo’s discoveries.
  Bertrand Russell’s notion about electricity is _____.[ANSWER]
  A)disapproved of by most modern scientists
  B)in agreement with Aristotle’s theory of self-evident principle
  C)in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "how" things happen
  D)in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "why" things happen
  The passage says that until recently scientific [ANSWER]
  A)that there are mysterious forces in the universe
  B)that man cannot discover what forces "really" are
  C)that there are self-evident principle
  D)that we can discover why things behave as they do
  Modern science came into being _____.[ANSWER]
  A)when the method of controlled experiment was first introduced
  B)when Galileo succeeded in explaining how things happen
  C)when Aristelian scientists tried to explain why things happen

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